Following the Rules: Practical Reasoning and Deontic Constraint
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Following the rules : practical reasoning and deontic constraint / Joseph Heath - Details - Trove
Purchase Instant Access. Firstly, let me begin by explaining the situation of social science today by looking at the main current that has regulated and prescribed it until now. Although there are some exceptions such as social psychology and anthropology, in most of the fields of social science and human science in the 20 th Century people have tried to understand social order in the following ways. In other words, the mainstream of the social sciences in the 20 th Century has been this sort of methodological individualism, which tries to explain social phenomena based upon instrumentally rational individuals.
Individuals acting based on internalized morality were not included within this explanation, and moral order within society could only be explained as a combination of the actions of multiple rational individuals.
One of the most typical examples of this is the methodology which has been used in economics. For example, in game theory, the following explanation has been used to explain the question of why people cooperate within society. If this game is only played once, it is rational not to cooperate. So how can cooperative behavior within society be explained? In other words, it is possible to explain cooperative behavior in society from the instrumental rationality of individuals.
On the other hand, the 20 th Century was also a period which witnessed progress in the accumulation of scholarly research to an extent unprecedented in the history of humanity.
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In particular, I would like to draw attention to how in the latter half of the 20 th Century, research in the various fields which study human social behavior from each of their respective unique approaches, such as analytical philosophy, decision making theory, game theory, social psychology, evolutionary psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, etc. And furthermore, he goes on to exhort the necessity of changing concepts of human rationality from this perspective.
According to this thinking, the spiritual state itself for example, the prediction of the results which each action will bring, and the evaluation of the desirability of each of these results, which is referred to by experts as the state of orientation , which is needed when selecting an action based upon instrumental rationality, is created from social practice based upon normative rules. However, after the cognitive revolution of the s, today, greater focus is gradually being made again on the way the enormous unconscious realm shapes and prescribes almost all human behavior.
Thus, while until this point desires had been viewed in a relatively simple manner as being very similar to physical stimulation, desires themselves are coming to be seen as being socially learned, and it is further being clarified that they are prescribed and defined by the mechanisms which govern rational thought.
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